Contents[ edit ] Leviticus Rabbah is not a continuous, explanatory interpretation to Leviticus, but a collection of exclusive sermons or lectures on the themes or texts of that book. It consists altogether of 37 such homilies, each of which constitutes a separate chapter. Leviticus Rabbah often refers to Scriptural passages on which the homilies are based as "parshiyot," and are further designated according to their contents. Of the 37 homilies, eight 1, 3, 8, 11, 13, 20, 26, 30 are introduced with the formula "Patach R. Thus, the redactor of Leviticus Rabbah collected homiletic expositions also of such texts as were treated in the Sifra.
|Published (Last):||28 October 2015|
|PDF File Size:||8.74 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||12.42 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
In Jewish tradition, Leviticus is sometimes called the "Book of Sacrifices" since it concerns the various offerings brought to the LORD for sacrificial purposes in the Mishkan Tabernacle. The God who led the Israelites out of Egypt and made covenant with them at Sinai has taken residence among them in the mishkan Tabernacle.
Now that God is in the midst of the people, however, Vayikra reveals how to be in relationship with Him. The key is the sacrificial system. Historically, of course, there were sacrifices made before the mishkan was constructed as the ritualistic center of the covenant made at Sinai.
The next morning, however, the sun rose, and Adam then offered an ox upon an altar. Noah - After Noah left the ark, he offered sacrifices of the "clean" animals to the LORD in thanks of having survived the global mabul flood. Note also that Noah knew the difference between clean tahor and unclean tamei animals. Isaac - built an altar and offered sacrifices Gen.
Jacob - built two altars and offered sacrifices Gen. Moses - built several altars before he was given revelation of the mishkan at Sinai. These included the sacrifices made after the battle with Amalek Ex. The guilty person leans his hands upon the head of the animal semichah and then says viduy confession : "I deserve to die instead of this innocent animal, but the LORD mercifully accepts the death of this innocent one in my stead.
The Torah states that of all the various kosher animals, only three kinds would be acceptable for sacrifice upon His altar: defect-free oxen a bull or cow , sheep a ram or ewe , or goats a buck or doe. Each kind of these animals is domesticated and peaceful. Besides these mammals, only two birds were allowed to be sacrificed: turtledoves and pigeons, both of which are likewise non-raptorial and peaceful.
In addition to these animal sacrifices, a poor person could offer grain offerings which were used to provide bread for the kohanim priests. The sacrificial victim must be an animal or a bird that is without defect. As the animal is slaughtered, the kohen catches its blood in a pan and sprinkles it zerikat hadam on the altar. The animal is then cut up, salted, and entirely burned. Normally, semichah leaning of the hands on the head of the animal and viduy confession of sin accompanies this sacrifice though in the case of a bird olah, semichah is not performed.
Part of the meal offering is burned on the altar, and the remaining part is eaten by the kohanim the word "mincha" means gift. Note that any flour offering must be baked quickly to prevent the dough from rising i. Like the animal sacrifices, minchah offerings must also be salted. Semichah is performed, though instead of viduy, praise to the LORD is offered. Note that there is no explicit sacrifice for deliberate, intentional, and willful sins against the LORD, but instead punishment by an early death.
Note that the sin offerings chatat and asham were chovah obligatory for atonement to be made. They had to be offered by the anointed High Priest who would sprinkle the blood of the sacrifice seven times inside the Mishkan tabernacle on the golden altar opposite the parochet the curtain before the Holy of Holies.
The chalabim fat was burned on the altar, but unlike the other offerings the rest of the animal its hide, flesh, and its body parts would be taken "outside the camp" to be burned with fire. The Talmud Yoma states that five miracles occurred with the fire that descended from heaven: The flame lay on the altar i. The fire shone as brightly as the sun. The fire actually had a substance. The fire consumed wet and dry alike. The flame did not produce any smoke.
Jewish midrash states that the meat of the korbanot never spoiled, even if it took days before it was burned upon the altar. Moreover, despite the presence of blood all over the mishkan, no flies swarmed the area on account of its special sanctity.
Note: Despite the fact that the sacrificial system was abandoned after the Second Temple was destroyed in the year 70 AD after the Mashiach Yeshua had come as our Kohen Gadol High Priest of the New Covenant , Leviticus continued to exert an influence on Jewish life, since nearly half of the commandments are found in it and much of the Talmud is based on it.
In Europe, it was traditional for children beginning their Hebrew studies to start with the book of Vayikra, which is a custom still practiced today. Nonetheless, God is faithful to Israel and will forgive and restore them to Himself. Brit Chadashah Reading: The readings from the Brit Chadashah concern the superiority of the sacrifice of the Mashiach as the "once for all" sacrifice for sin. Instead of daily sacrifices and offerings, the Mashiach came to fulfill the will of God by becoming obedient to all that the Law required and by offering Himself up as the ultimate Sacrificial Victim, truly without spot or blemish.
And by that will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all" Hebrews Moreover, just as the blood of the sin offering was brought into the Holy Place by the anointed High Priest, so Yeshua presented His own blood in the Holy Place made without hands, and then "suffered outside the camp": "We have an altar from which those who serve the tent have no right to eat. For the bodies of those animals whose blood is brought into the holy places by the high priest as a sacrifice for sin are burned outside the camp.
So Jesus also suffered outside the gate in order to sanctify the people through his own blood. Therefore let us go to him outside the camp and bear the reproach he endured. For here we have no lasting city, but we seek the city that is to come. Through him then let us continually offer up a sacrifice of praise to God, that is, the fruit of lips that acknowledge his name. Yeshua offered His own body up to be the perfect Sacrifice for sins.
By His shed blood we are given complete atonement before Adonai. The Levitical system of animal sacrifices, including the elaborate Yom Kippur ritual, was meant to foreshadow the true and abiding Sacrifice of Yeshua as the means of our reconciliation with God.
If the old covenant had been sufficient to provide a permanent solution to the problem of our sin, there never would have been need for a new covenant to supercede it Hebrews Under the old covenant, sacrifices merely "covered" sins, but under the new covenant, these sins are taken entirely away Hebrews , , There is no more need for continual sacrifices, since Yeshua provided the once-and-for-all sacrifice for all of our sins Hebrews ; ; Indeed, Yeshua ha-Mashiach is the "propitiation" or "expiation" for our sins.
The Greek word used in Romans , 1 John , and 1 John "hilasterion" is the same word used in the LXX for the kapporet [cover of the ark of the covenant] in the Holy of Holies which was sprinkled with the blood of the sacrifice on Yom Kippur. For Messiah has entered, not into holy places made with hands, which are copies of the true things, but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God on our behalf. Nor was it to offer himself repeatedly, as the high priest enters the holy places every year with blood not his own, for then he would have had to suffer repeatedly since the foundation of the world.
But as it is, he has appeared once for all at the end of the ages to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself So Messiah, having been offered once to bear the sins of many, will appear a second time, not to deal with sin but to save those who are eagerly waiting for him. Hebrews ff Have you personally made semichah by laying hands on Jesus as your sacrifice for sin?
Have you made viduy confession of your need for deliverance through Him?
The opinions, facts and any media content in them are presented solely by the authors, and neither The Times of Israel nor its partners assume any responsibility for them. Please contact us in case of abuse. Apparently not. The Midrash brings 2 parables which tell a very different story.
Midrash Tanchuma Vayikra – The soul: innocent bystander or a partner in crime?
Midrash Esther , on Esther CE. The Pesikta, a compilation of homilies on special Pentateuchal and Prophetic lessons early 8th century , in two versions: Pesikta de-Rav Kahana Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer not before 8th century , a midrashic narrative of the more important events of the Pentateuch. Tanchuma or Yelammedenu 9th century on the whole Pentateuch; its homilies often consist of a halakhic introduction, followed by several poems, exposition of the opening verses, and the Messianic conclusion. There are actually a number of different Midrash Tanhuma collections. The two most important are Midrash Tanhuma Ha Nidpas , literally the published text. This is also sometimes referred to as Midrash Tanhuma Yelamdenu. Although the first is the one most widely distributed today, when the medieval authors refer to Midrash Tanchuma, they usually mean the second.
Ecclesiastes Rabbah The designation "Rabbah" was first applied to the midrash to Genesis , and then applied to the midrashim to the other books of the Pentateuch Vayikra Rabbah , Shemot Rabbah , etc. This collection eventually came to be called "Midrash Rabbot" i. The editio princeps of the midrashim to the Pentateuch Constantinople, begins with the words "Be-shem El atchil Bereshit Rabba" In the name of God I shall begin Bereshit Rabbah , and the title of the editio princeps of the midrashim to the megillot Pesaro, reads "Midrash Hamesh Megillot" Midrash of the Five Megillot. Still more inexact and misleading is the term "Midrash Rabbah to the Five Books of the Pentateuch and the Five Megillot," as found on the title-page of the two parts in the much-used Vilna edition. After Zunz , it is not necessary to point out that the Midrash Rabbah consists of 10 entirely different midrashim. Manuscripts[ edit ] On the manuscript of the Bereshit Rabbah and some of the other rabbot to the Pentateuch, see Theodor. According to Solomon Schechter , there are not even six manuscripts of the rabbot to the Pentateuch and the Five Megillot in existence.