Alfonso X as a judge, from his Libro de los juegos ,  completed ca. His maternal grandparents were Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina. Little is known about his upbringing, but he was most likely raised in Toledo. He began his career as a soldier, under the command of his father, when he was only sixteen years old. In the same period — he conquered several Muslim strongholds in Al-Andalus alongside his father, such as Murcia , Alicante and Cadiz.
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Alfonso X as a judge, from his Libro de los juegos ,  completed ca. His maternal grandparents were Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina. Little is known about his upbringing, but he was most likely raised in Toledo. He began his career as a soldier, under the command of his father, when he was only sixteen years old.
In the same period — he conquered several Muslim strongholds in Al-Andalus alongside his father, such as Murcia , Alicante and Cadiz. The following year he invaded Portugal, capturing the region of the Algarve. In he captured Jerez. His rival, Richard of Cornwall , went to Germany and was crowned in at Aachen. To obtain money, Alfonso debased the coinage and then endeavored to prevent a rise in prices by an arbitrary tariff. The little trade of his dominions was ruined, and the burghers and peasants were deeply offended.
His nobles, whom he tried to cow by sporadic acts of violence, rebelled against him in According to some scholars Alfonso lacked the singleness of purpose required by a ruler who would devote himself to organization and also the combination of firmness with temper needed for dealing with his nobles although this is not a view taken by all.
Alfonso preferred to leave the throne to his grandsons, but Sancho had the support of the nobility. Son and nobles alike supported the Moors when he tried to unite the nation in a crusade; and when he allied himself with Abu Yusuf Yakub , the ruling Marinid Sultan of Morocco , they denounced him as an enemy of the faith. A reaction in his favor was beginning in his later days, but he died defeated and deserted at Seville in , leaving a will, by which he endeavored to exclude Sancho, and a heritage of civil war.
One side effect of the quickly expanding sheep herds was the decimation to the Castilian farmland through which the sheep grazed. Legislative activity[ edit ] As a ruler, Alfonso showed legislative capacity, and a wish to provide the kingdoms expanded under his father with a code of laws and a consistent judicial system. The Fuero Real[ further explanation needed ] was undoubtedly his work. Because of this, and because the Partidas remain fundamental law in the American Southwest,  he is one of the 23 lawmakers depicted in the House of Representatives chamber of the United States Capitol.
Military training[ edit ] Equestrian seal of Alfonso X of Castile From a young age Alfonso X showed an interest in military life and chivalry.
James on a white horse with a white banner and a legion of knights fighting a war above the soldiers of Spain. Spanish Chivalric conduct was codified in the Siete Partidas 2,21 where he wrote that knights should be, "of good linage and distinguished by gentility, wisdom, understanding, loyalty, courage, moderation, justice, prowess, and the practical knowledge necessary to assess the quality of horse and arms Siete Partidas , 21,1— Alfonso had many works previously written in Arabic and Latin translated into vernacular Castilian in his court.
Alfonso "turned to the vernacular for the kind of intellectual commitments that formerly were inconceivable outside Latin. This translation of Arabic and Classic documents into vernacular encouraged the development of Spanish sciences, literature, and philosophy.
Translations[ edit ] From the beginning of his reign, Alfonso employed Jewish, Christian and Muslim scholars at his court, primarily for the purpose of translating books from Arabic and Hebrew into Latin and Castilian, although he always insisted in supervising personally the translations.
This group of scholars formed his royal scriptorium , continuing the tradition of the twelfth-century Escuela de Traductores de Toledo Toledo School of Translators.
Their final output promoted Castilian as a learning language both in science and literature, and established the foundations of the new Spanish language. The primary intellectual work of these scholars centered on astronomy and astrology. These were all highly ornate manuscripts only the Lapidario survives in its entirety containing what was believed to be secret knowledge on the magical properties of stones and talismans.
In addition to these books of astral magic, Alfonso ordered the translation of well-known Arabic astrological compendia, including the Libro de las cruzes and Libro conplido en los iudizios de las estrellas. The first of these was, ironically, translated from Latin it was used among the Visigoths , into Arabic , and then back into Castilian and Latin. Astronomy[ edit ] As an intellectual he gained considerable scientific fame based on his encouragement of astronomy , which included astrology at the time and the Ptolemaic cosmology as known to him through the Arabs.
He surrounded himself with mostly Jewish translators who rendered Arabic scientific texts into Castilian at Toledo. His fame extends to the preparation of the Alfonsine tables , based on calculations of al-Zarqali, "Arzachel". Secretary of State, — used it as the basis for the title and epigraph of his memoir Present at the Creation. This chronicle sought to establish a general history and drew from older chronicles, folklore and Arabic sources.
This work was an attempt at a world history that drew from many sources and included translations from the Vulgate Old Testament mixed with myths and histories from the classical world, mostly Egypt, Greece, and Rome.
Games[ edit ] The game of astronomical tables, from Libro de los juegos Alfonso also had the Libro de ajedrez, dados, y tablas "Libro de los Juegos" The Book of Games translated into Castilian from Arabic and added illustrations with the goal of perfecting the work.
The Cantigas form one of the largest collections of vernacular monophonic songs to survive from the Middle Ages.
They consist of poems with musical notation. The poems are for the most part on miracles attributed to the Virgin Mary.
Alfonso almost had their marriage annulled, but they went on to have eleven children: Berengaria — after She entered the convent in Las Huelgas, where she was living in Beatrice — Because he predeceased his father, his younger brother Sancho succeeded to the throne. Isabella, died young.
Las piedras curativas del rey Alfonso X
En torno a la aplicacin de las Partidas: fragmentos del Espculo en una sentencia real de Hispania Madison: Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies. El Libro de las Leyes de Alfonso el Sabio. Del Espculo a las Partidas. Anuario de Historia del Derecho Espaol Las Cortes de Zamora de y los casos de corte.
Lapidario de Alfonso X el Sabio. Edilan.
Literatura de Alfonso X el Sabio