It involved multidisciplinary teams that worked together for short periods of time on specific problems in the real world. In the type of knowledge acquired, Mode 1 knowledge is universal law , primarily cognitive, while Mode 2 knowledge is particular and situational, and in Mode 1 in data is context free but in Mode 2 contextually embedded. In Mode 1, the knowledge is validated by logic and measurement , together with consistency of prediction and control, while in Mode 2 knowledge is validated by experiential, collaborative, and transdisciplinary processes. Scholars in science policy studies have pointed to three types of problems with the concept of Mode 2: its empirical validity, its conceptual strength, and its political value.

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Communications and negotiations between institutional partners generate an overlay that increasingly reorganizes the underlying arrangements. The institutional layer can be considered as the retention mechanism of a developing system. For example, the national organization of the system of innovation has historically been important in determining competition. The consequent transformations can be analyzed in terms of mechanisms.

All rights reserved. Introduction: From the endless frontier to an endless transition The Triple Helix thesis states that the university can play an enhanced role in innovation in increas- ingly knowledge-based societies. Etzkowitz, L. However, it can be expected that proponents of the third mission from the new universities and regional colleges, which have based their research programmes on its premises, will continue to make their case. But would the knowledge be efficiently transferred to industry without the series of mechanisms for identifying and enhancing the applicability of re- search findings?

How are development processes to be carried further, through special grants for this purpose or in new firms formed on campus and in university incubator facilities? The institutional innovations aim to promote closer relations between faculties and firms. Publication and patenting assume different sys- tems of reference both from each other and with reference to the transformation of knowledge and technology into marketable products.

The beginnings of a Swedish movement to involve academia more closely in this direction has occasioned a debate similar to the one that took place in the US in the early s.

At that time, Harvard University sought to establish a firm jointly with one of its professors, based on his research results. Can academia encompass a third mission of eco- nomic development in addition to research and teaching? How can each of these various tasks con- tribute to the mission of the university? The late 19th century witnessed an academic revolution in which research was introduced into the university mission and made more or less compatible with teaching, at least at the graduate level.

Many universities in the USA and worldwide are still undergoing this trans- formation of purpose. The increased salience of knowledge and research to economic development has opened up a third mission: the role of the university in economic development.

Similar controversies have taken place in Latin America, Asia, and elsewhere in Europe. In Sweden, the Knowledge H. Leydesdorffr Research Policy 29 — 2.

Triple Helix configurations The evolution of innovation systems, and the current conflict over which path should be taken in university—industry relations, are reflected in the varying institutional arrangements of university—in- dustry—government relations.

First, one can distin- guish a specific historical situation which one may wish to label Triple Helix I. Weaker versions were formulated in the policies of many Latin Amer- ican countries and to some extent in European coun- tries such as Norway. An etatistic model of university—industry—government relations.

Triple Helix I is largely viewed Fig. Leydesdorffr Research Policy 29 — as a failed developmental model. Triple Helix II entails a laissez-faire policy, nowadays also advo- cated as shock therapy to reduce the role of the state in Triple Helix I. In one form or another, most countries and re- gions are presently trying to attain some form of Triple Helix III. The Triple Helix of innovation The Triple Helix as an analytical model adds to the description of the variety of institutional arrange- ments and policy models an explanation of their dynamics.

What are the units of operation that inter- act when a system of innovation is formed? How can such a system be specified?


Triple helix model of innovation

Bilateral interactions exist between university, industry and government. University-industry interactions[ edit ] Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff argue that the initial role of universities is to provide education to individuals and basic research. Therefore, interactions between university and industry revolve initially around those two elements. In a linear model of innovation , universities are supposed to provide the research on which industry will build upon to produce commercial goods. The other interactions take place through the involvement of industry managers and university faculty in both sectors.


Etzkowitz h. Leydesdorff l. (2000) Triple Helix



Knowledge Production Modes



Professor Henry Etzkowitz


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