You know the type, the saavy, cool, cutting-edge, networked, leveraged, foresighted thought leader. The kind of person who makes a lot of money by not doing better than the competition, but by blazing whole new economic sectors. That figure is a kind of mediated chimera in the mold of the Original, the central subject of this book, one Stewart Brand. It is also a masterpiece of scholarship, and a great example of what an STS book should do. For Americans in the s and s, the computer had a singular, sinister vision.
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Qualities[ edit ] First and foremost, cyberculture derives from traditional notions of culture, as the roots of the word imply. In non-cyberculture, it would be odd to speak of a single, monolithic culture. In cyberculture, by extension, searching for a single thing that is cyberculture would likely be problematic.
The notion that there is a single, definable cyberculture is likely the complete dominance of early cyber territory by affluent North Americans. Writing by early proponents of cyberspace tends to reflect this assumption see Howard Rheingold. For example, the laws of physical world governments, social norms, the architecture of cyberspace, and market forces shape the way cybercultures form and evolve.
As with physical world cultures, cybercultures lend themselves to identification and study. There are several qualities that cybercultures share that make them warrant the prefix "cyber-".
Some of those qualities are that cyberculture: Is a community mediated by ICTs. Is culture "mediated by computer screens". Depends on the ability to manipulate tools to a degree not present in other forms of culture even artisan culture, e.
Allows vastly expanded weak ties and has been criticized for overly emphasizing the same see Bowling Alone and other works. Multiplies the number of eyeballs on a given problem, beyond that which would be possible using traditional means, given physical, geographic, and temporal constraints.
Is a "cognitive and social culture, not a geographic one". Thus, cyberculture can be generally defined as the set of technologies material and intellectual , practices, attitudes, modes of thought, and values that developed with cyberspace. October Learn how and when to remove this template message Cyberculture, like culture in general, relies on establishing identity and credibility.
However, in the absence of direct physical interaction, it could be argued that the process for such establishment is more difficult. How does cyberculture rely on and establish identity and credibility? This relationship is two-way, with identity and credibility being both used to define the community in cyberspace and to be created within and by online communities. In some senses, online credibility is established in much the same way that it is established in the offline world; however, since these are two separate worlds, it is not surprising that there are differences in their mechanisms and interactions of the markers found in each.
Following the model put forth by Lawrence Lessig in Code: Version 2. Some factors may be: Anonymous versus Known Linked to Physical Identity versus Internet-based Identity Only Unrated Commentary System versus Rated Commentary System Positive Feedback-oriented versus Mixed Feedback positive and negative oriented Moderated versus Unmoderated See also: Anonymous post Many sites allow anonymous commentary, where the user-id attached to the comment is something like "guest" or "anonymous user".
In an architecture that allows anonymous posting about other works, the credibility being impacted is only that of the product for sale, the original opinion expressed, the code written, the video, or other entity about which comments are made e.
Sites that require "known" postings can vary widely from simply requiring some kind of name to be associated with the comment to requiring registration, wherein the identity of the registrant is visible to other readers of the comment.
These "known" identities allow and even require commentators to be aware of their own credibility, based on the fact that other users will associate particular content and styles with their identity. By definition, then, all blog postings are "known" in that the blog exists in a consistently defined virtual location, which helps to establish an identity, around which credibility can gather. Conversely, anonymous postings are inherently incredible.
Note that a "known" identity need have nothing to do with a given identity in the physical world. Irrespective of safeguards, as with Counsel Connect,  —97 using physical identities links credibility across the frames of the internet and real space, influencing the behaviors of those who contribute in those spaces.
However, even purely internet-based identities have credibility. Just as Lessig describes linkage to a character or a particular online gaming environment, nothing inherently links a person or group to their internet-based persona, but credibility similar to "characters" is "earned rather than bought, and because this takes time and credibility is not fungible, it becomes increasingly hard" to create a new persona.
This technique offers the ability to regulate the credibility of given authors by subjecting their comments to direct "quantifiable" approval ratings.
Positive feedback-oriented versus mixed feedback positive and negative oriented[ edit ] Architectures can be oriented around positive feedback or a mix of both positive and negative feedback.
While a particular user may be able to equate fewer stars with a "negative" rating, the semantic difference is potentially important. The ability to actively rate an entity negatively may violate laws or norms that are important in the jurisdiction in which the internet property is important. Many email lists are worked in this fashion e. In these situations, the architecture usually allows, but does not require that contributions be moderated.
Further, moderation may take two different forms: reactive or proactive. In the reactive mode, an editor removes posts, reviews, or content that is deemed offensive after it has been placed on the site or list.
In the proactive mode, an editor must review all contributions before they are made public. In a moderated setting, credibility is often given to the moderator. However, that credibility can be damaged by appearing to edit in a heavy-handed way, whether reactive or proactive as experienced by digg.
In an unmoderated setting, credibility lies with the contributors alone. See also: List of human-computer interaction topics The field of cyberculture studies examines the topics explained above, including the communities emerging within the networked spaces sustained by the use of modern technology.
Students of cyberculture engage with political, philosophical, sociological, and psychological issues that arise from the networked interactions of human beings by humans who act in various relations to information science and technology.
A Crunchy-Granola Path From Macramé and LSD to Wikipedia and Google
Qualities[ edit ] First and foremost, cyberculture derives from traditional notions of culture, as the roots of the word imply. In non-cyberculture, it would be odd to speak of a single, monolithic culture. In cyberculture, by extension, searching for a single thing that is cyberculture would likely be problematic. The notion that there is a single, definable cyberculture is likely the complete dominance of early cyber territory by affluent North Americans.
Bleak tools of the cold war, they embodied the rigid organization and mechanical conformity that made the military industrial complex possible. But by the s—and the dawn of the Internet—computers represented a very different kind of world: a collaborative and digital utopia modeled on the communal ideals of the hippies who so vehemently rebelled against the cold war establishment in the first place. From Counterculture to Cyberculture is the first book to explore this extraordinary and ironic transformation. Fred Turner here traces the previously untold story of a highly influential group of San Francisco Bay—area entrepreneurs: Stewart Brand and the Whole Earth network. Between and , via such familiar venues as the National Book Award—winning Whole Earth Catalog, the computer conferencing system known as WELL, and ultimately, the launch of the wildly successful Wired magazine, Brand and his colleagues from essaylamba.