Per la descrizione del suo viaggio in Crimea e a Costantinopoli ricevette le sue prime royalty. Da San Pietroburgo alla Cina[ modifica modifica wikitesto ] Nel fu rilasciato dalla prigione con un cosiddetto " Biglietto Lupo ", che gli impediva di trovare un lavoro o di lasciare la Russia. Prestando servizi in varie mansioni, tra gli altri, come ufficiale dei servizi segreti , inviato al Corpo di intervento degli Stati Uniti e come assistente polacco alla quinta divisione del maggior Walerian Czuma. Dopo un viaggio di parecchie migliaia di chilometri il gruppo raggiunse la Mongolia, dove gli venne concesso il diritto di cittadinanza dal misterioso barone Roman von Ungern-Sternberg.
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His family was of Lipka Tatar descent. He studied at the famous gymnasium in Kamieniec Podolski , but he moved with his father, a renowned doctor, to Saint Petersburg , where he graduated from a Russian language school.
Then he joined the mathematical-physical faculty of the local university, where he studied chemistry. As an assistant to professor Aleksander Zalewski , he traveled to many distant areas, including Siberia , the Caucasus and the Altay Mountains.
For his description of his trip to Crimea and Constantinople , he received his first royalty. It is possible that he received a doctorate back in Russia, but no documents have survived. In he was allowed to return to Russia, where professor Zalewski invited him to the newly founded Institute of Technology of the Tomsk State University. There, he gave lectures on chemistry and physics.
At the same time he also gave lectures at the Agricultural Academy and published numerous scientific works on hydrology , geology, physical chemistry , geography and physics. After the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War — Ossendowski moved to Harbin in Manchuria , where he founded a Central Technical Research Laboratory, a Russian-financed institution for development of the ore deposits in the area.
At the same time, he headed the local branch of the Russian Geographic Society in Vladivostok. In Manchuria, he also became one of the leaders of the considerable Polish diaspora and published his first novel in Polish , Noc Night. He also got involved in the Main Revolutionary Committee, a leftist organisation that tried to take power in Manchuria during the Revolution of After the failure of the revolution, Ossendowski organised a strike against the brutal repressions in Congress Poland for which he was arrested.
At that time he devoted himself to writing. His popularity allowed him to return to St Petersburg in There he continued to write books and at the same time headed the Society of the Gold and Platinum Industry and several newspapers and journals, both in Russian and in Polish. After the outbreak of World War I , Ossendowski published several more books, including a science fiction novel, a propaganda novel on German spies in Russia and a brochure describing German and Austro-Hungarian war crimes.
After the outbreak of the February Revolution of , Ossendowski moved yet again, to Siberia , this time to Omsk , where he started giving lectures at the local university. He served at various posts, among others as an intelligence officer, an envoy to the intervention corps from the United States and an assistant to the Polish 5th Rifle Division of Maj.
Walerian Czuma. In he was responsible for the transfer of many tsarist and White Russian documents to the Entente, including proofs many apparently forged of German support confirmed later from German archives for Lenin and his Bolsheviks so-called Sisson Documents. However, he also proved to be an exceptional military commander, and his forces grew rapidly. In late , he was sent with a diplomatic mission to Japan and then the US, never to return to Mongolia.
Some writers believe that Ossendowski was one of the people who hid the semimythical treasures of Baron Roman von Ungern-Sternberg. At the same time, in late he published his first book in English: Beasts, Men and Gods. The description of his travels during the Russian Civil War and the campaigns led by the Bloody Baron became a striking success and a bestseller. In , it was translated into Polish and then into several other languages.
At the same time, he remained an advisor to the Polish government and an expert sovietologist. He continued to travel to different parts of the world, and after each journey he published a book or two. In the interwar period, he was considered the creator of a distinct genre called the traveling novel. With over 70 books published in Poland and translated almost times into 20 other languages, Ossendowski was also the second most popular Polish author abroad, after Henryk Sienkiewicz.
He repeated the success of his Beasts, Men and Gods with a book on Lenin in which he openly criticized Soviet communist methods and policies as well as the double face of the communist leaders. In he converted to Catholicism previously being a Lutheran , and the following year, he joined the ranks of the underground National Party. On 2 January , he was taken to the hospital in Grodzisk Mazowiecki where he died on 3 January .
It turned out that Ossendowski was being sought by the NKVD , and was being considered an enemy of the people for his book on Lenin and the Soviet system, which was considered an act of anti-Soviet agitation. The Soviet agents exhumed his body to confirm his identity and that he was really dead .
After the war, the new communist Soviet-led authorities of Poland issued a ban on all books by Ossendowski. Many of his books were confiscated from the libraries and burnt.
The following list is an approximate and incomplete bibliography only.
Antoni Ferdynand Ossendowski