As president, he laid the foundation for later national progress by fostering public education , stimulating the growth of commerce and agriculture, and encouraging the development of rapid transportation and communication. But it is largely his loving depiction of the gaucho and the pampas that has made this book a classic of Latin American literature. Largely self-taught, Sarmiento began his career as a rural schoolteacher at age 15 and soon entered public life as a provincial legislator. His political activities and his outspokenness provoked the rage of the military dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas , who exiled him to Chile in
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As president, he laid the foundation for later national progress by fostering public education , stimulating the growth of commerce and agriculture, and encouraging the development of rapid transportation and communication. But it is largely his loving depiction of the gaucho and the pampas that has made this book a classic of Latin American literature. Largely self-taught, Sarmiento began his career as a rural schoolteacher at age 15 and soon entered public life as a provincial legislator.
His political activities and his outspokenness provoked the rage of the military dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas , who exiled him to Chile in The book has been criticized for its erratic style and oversimplifications, but it has also been called the single most important book produced in Spanish America. In the Chilean government sent Sarmiento abroad to study educational methods in Europe and the United States. After three years he returned, convinced that the United States provided the model for Latin America to follow in its development.
Sarmiento returned to Argentina to help overthrow Rosas in ; he continued his writing and educational activities and reentered Argentine politics. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today Sarmiento was elected president of Argentina in and immediately began to apply his liberal ideals—his belief in democratic principles and civil liberties and his opposition to dictatorial regimes in any form—to the building of a new Argentina.
He ended the war with Paraguay inherited by his administration and concentrated on domestic achievements. When his term ended in , Sarmiento continued to be active in public life. Most of the 52 volumes of his published work are devoted to educational themes. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:.
Civilization and Barbarism
Start your review of Facundo: or Civilization and Barbarism Write a review Shelves: argentina , history , politics There are relative few works of politics and history that can be regarded as great literature. Written in , Facundo: Civilization and Barbarism tells of the civil war that erupted soon after Argentina declared and won its independence from Spain. On one side were the gaucho There are relative few works of politics and history that can be regarded as great literature. On one side were the gaucho caudillos such as Juan Manuel Rosas and Facundo Quiroga, who fought on the side of the Federales.
Domingo Faustino Sarmiento
Buy Study Guide Sarmiento begins his work by delving into the particulars of the Argentinian landscape and its inhabitants. The land is blessed with navigable rivers but has open, desolate plains that are breeding grounds for the gauchos, wild and savage men who eschew law and order. They represent the forces of barbarism sweeping the land, eradicating the progress and civilization of the cities. These men are indolent and primitive; they care only for their horses and fighting. They hate refinement and anything European, including education. The fight with the forces of nature is what consumes them; Sarmiento acknowledges that this indelibly shapes their character. There are many unique types in Argentina besides the gaucho: the rastreador a track-finder , the baqueano the topographer , the cantor the minstrel , and the gaucho outlaw.
Facundo: Civilization and Barbarism
Roberto Gonzalez Echevarria, the leading critic of Hispanic literature, powerfully introduces the sensitive translation by Kathleen Ross. Today recognized as one of the foundational works of Spanish American literary history, Facundo marks a defining point in the evolution of a literature that was attempting to establish a cultural identity for the new, post-Independence Latin nations. A text controversial from its inception, this book remains required reading for any student of Latin American history and culture. Its liberal ideology and prescriptions for modernization, combined with a prose style of tremendous beauty and passion, make it reverberate powerfully even for the twenty-first century, as rapid change overtakes Argentina and the rest of the continent and region. As a narrative, Facundo is hard to classify.
Facundo: or Civilization and Barbarism
My father is a good man whose life has nothing remarkable except [for his] having served in subordinate positions in the War of Independence My mother is the true figure of Christianity in its purest sense; with her, trust in Providence was always the solution to all difficulties in life. He was a good student, and earned the title of First Citizen Primer Ciudadano of the school. He had spent a year reading the Bible and often spent time as a child helping his uncle with church services,  but Sarmiento soon became bored with religion and school, and got involved with a group of aggressive children.