On the coins minted by Shirvanshahs name appears as Bakuya. Other explanations[ edit ] Various different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the etymology of the word Baku. According to L. Lopatinski  and Ali Huseynzade  "Baku" is derived from Turkic word for "hill". Patkanov, a specialist in Caucasian history, also explains the name as "hill" but in Lak language. Traces of human settlement go back to the Stone age.
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On the coins minted by Shirvanshahs name appears as Bakuya. Other explanations[ edit ] Various different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the etymology of the word Baku. According to L. Lopatinski  and Ali Huseynzade  "Baku" is derived from Turkic word for "hill". Patkanov, a specialist in Caucasian history, also explains the name as "hill" but in Lak language.
Traces of human settlement go back to the Stone age. From the Bronze Age there have been rock carvings discovered near Bayil, and a bronze figure of a small fish discovered in the territory of the Old City. The remnant of this period is the village of Ramana in the Sabunchu district of Baku.
A record from the 5th-century historian Priscus of Panium was the first to mention the famous Bakuvian fires ex petra maritima flamma ardet — from the maritime stone flame emerges. Owing to these eternal fires Baku became a major center of ancient Zoroastrianism. Sassanid shah Ardashir I gave orders "to keep an inextinguishable fire of the god Ormazd" in the city temples. There is little or no information regarding Baku in medieval sources until the 10th century.
At that time Baku was a domain of the Arab Caliphate and later of Shirvanshahs. During this period, they frequently came under assault of the Khazars and starting from the 10th century the Rus. Shirvanshah Akhsitan I built a navy in Baku and successfully repelled another Rus assault in A mint was put into operation.
The Maiden Tower, castles of Ramana , Nardaran , Shagan and Mardakan, and also famous Sabayel castle on the island of the Baku bay was built during this period. The city walls were also rebuilt and strengthened. The biggest problem of Baku during this time was the transgression of the Caspian Sea. The rising levels of the water from time to time engulfed much of the city and the famous castle of Sabayel went completely into the sea in the 14th century. These led to several legends about submerged cities such as Shahriyunan "Greek city".
In the 14th century, the city prospered under Muhammad Oljeitu who relieved it from some of the heavy taxes. Bakuvian poet Nasir Bakui wrote a panegyric to Oljeitu thus creating the first piece of poetry in Azerbaijani language.
Marco Polo had written of Baku oil exports to Near Eastern countries. In , Safavid shah Ismail I laid siege to Baku. The besieged inhabitants resisted, relying for defense on their fortifications. Between and there is a record of six English missions to Baku. They wrote that the " This oil is black and is called nefte.
There is also by the town of Baku, another kind of oil which is white and very precious, and it is called petroleum". Mamednur oglu. This man finished the construction of a high-efficiency oil well in the Balakhany settlement. In the following year, Baku was temporarily recaptured by the Ottoman Empire.
The inscription inscribed invocation to Lord Shiva in Sanskrit at the Ateshgah. Baku is noted for being a focal point for traders from all across the world during the Early modern period , commerce was active and the area was prosperous. Notably, traders from the Indian subcontinent established themselves in the region. These Indian traders built the Ateshgah of Baku during 17th—18th centuries; the temple was used as a Hindu , Sikh , and Parsi place of worship. Peter the Great, while equipping a new military expedition commanded by General Mikhail Matyushkin , charged him with sending more oil from Baku to St.
Petersburg , "which is a basis of an eternal and sacred flame"—Old Russian: "коя является основой вечного и священного пламени". After the disintegration of the Safavid Empire and after the death of Nader Shah, the semi-independent principality of Baku Khanate was formed in following the power vacuum which had been created.
The population of Baku was small approximately 5, , and the economy was ruined as a result of constant warfare, banditry, and inflation.
The khans benefited, however, from the sea trade with the rest of Iran. Feudal infighting in the s resulted in the dominance of an anti-Russian faction in the city resulting in the Russian-leaning brother of the Khan being exiled to Quba. Zubov had sent 13, men to capture Baku, and it was overrun subsequently without any resistance. On 13 June , a Russian flotilla entered Baku Bay, and a garrison of Russian troops was placed inside the city.
Later, however, Pavel I ordered the cessation of the campaign and the withdrawal of Russian forces following his predecessor, Catherine the Great , her death. In March , the tsarist troops left Baku.
Baku: an eventful history
Zolojind Mirzoiev,-the contractor, was all-powerful, and although not eventcul refiner himself, but only a buyer of refined, he fixed prices for crude and products at Nizhni Fair and would not tolerate competition. To diminish the expense and ensure a larger and more rapid supply, the Nobels tried to persuade the other firms to lay down a joint pipe line. Fire worshippers existed in the sixth century B. The oil from the wells is collected in large and deep stone-made ponds and carted to Baku in large leather bags. At Xn there was not only a lack of experienced oil drillers, but the ordinary artisan was a rara avis. Baku: an eventful history — James Dodds Henry — Google Books It was soon surrounded by three others ; all were drilling on the off chance of striking oil, and work went on in a half- hearted fashion on account of poverty of finance and the uncertainty of success. The high bakku duties imposed to encourage a home industry have served their purpose, and, when the industry was no longer in need of protection against uistory competition, it was retained, firstly, with a view to preventing the import of oil historj the frontier regions situated at a distance from the Caucasus, and, secondly, in order to protect the revenue derived by the Exchequer from home-produced kerosene.
Baku: an eventful history,